MACCABEE, the additional name given to Judah, son of Mattathias, leader of the revolt against Syria (168 B.C.E.), later referred to as the "Maccabean Revolt." It was no accident that the revolt broke out at a rural location such as Modi'in and not in Jerusalem itself. It began with the killing of a local who was willing to sacrifice to a pagan idol, and the action was taken by a zealous minor native priest, Mattathias (I Macc. 2:27; cf. 2:42) who subsequently called on those around him to follow the law and "maintain the covenant" and to fight the offensive edicts of Antiochus IV. The object was clearly to return to the religious autonomy Jews originally enjoyed, but the later successes of the revolt dictated otherwise. The name Maccabee is also applied loosely to other members of the family, as well as to the Hasmonean dynasty as a whole. For suggestions as to its derivation, see judah maccabee and hasmoneans . The name is also given in Christian tradition to the seven children martyred by Antiochus Epiphanes when they refused to commit idolatry. Shrines to their memory and that of their mother Salome (in Jewish tradition Hannah) were established in many parts of the Christian world (see hannah and her seven sons ). -BIBLIOGRAPHY: E.J. Bickerman, "The Maccabean Uprising: An Interpretation," in: J. Goldin (ed.), The Jewish Expression (1976), 66–86; F. Millar, "The Background to the Maccabean Revolution…," in: Journal of Jewish Studies, 29 (1978), 1–12; D. Mendels, The Rise and Fall of Jewish Nationalism (1992); D. Amit and H. Eshel, The Days of the Hasmonean Dynasty (1995). (Shimon Gibson (2nd ed.)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

Look at other dictionaries:

  • Maccabée — Maccabées Les Maccabées ou Macchabées (מכבים ou מקבים, Makabim en hébreu) sont une famille juive qui mena la résistance contre la politique d’hellénisation forcée pratiquée par les Séleucides au IIe siècle av. J. C.. Ils fondèrent la… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Maccabee — Maccabbee can refer to: *the Maccabees *Bruce Maccabee …   Wikipedia

  • Maccabee — n. member of the ancient Hasmonean priestly family and descendant of Mattathias (esp. refers to Judah the Maccabee and his brothers) …   English contemporary dictionary

  • Maccabee — noun A member of the (a liberation movement in Israel who established Jewish independence in the Land of Israel in the second and first centuries BC …   Wiktionary

  • maccabee — mac·ca·bee …   English syllables

  • maccabee — ˈmakəˌbē noun (plural maccabees) Usage: usually capitalized Etymology: after Maccabees, 2d 1st century B.C. family of Jewish patriots : a member of any of various fraternal orders see knight of the maccabees …   Useful english dictionary

  • Maccabee, Judas — • Third son of the priest Mathathias who with his family was the centre and soul of the patriotic and religious revolt of the Jews against the King of Syria (I Mach., ii, 4) Catholic Encyclopedia. Kevin Knight. 2006 …   Catholic encyclopedia

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  • Judas Maccabée — Pour les articles homonymes, voir Judas et Juda. Judas Maccabée (en hébreu יהודה המכבי ou המקבי Yéhouda HaMakabi) est un dirigeant juif du IIe siècle av. J.‑C. qui était à la tête des forces juives pendant la révolte des Maccabées… …   Wikipédia en Français

  • Jonathan Maccabée — fut le dirigeant de la dynastie Hasmonéenne de Juda Maccabée de 161 à 143 av. J. C.. Il est le fils de Mattathias et le frère de Juda Maccabée, figures de la rébellion des Maccabées contre Antiochos IV Épiphane de l empire Séleucide. Succession A …   Wikipédia en Français

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